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Loreto


Loreto

Geography | Climate | Political Divisions | History | Festivities | Typical Dishes and Beverages | Places of Interest

Loreto is Peru’s northernmost region. Covering almost one-third of Peru’s territory, Loreto is by far the nation’s largest region; it is also one of the most sparsely populated regions due to its remote location in the Amazon Rainforest. Its capital is Iquitos.

Geography

Loreto’s large territory comprises parts of the High and Low Jungle, and all of its surface is covered with thick vegetation.

This territory has wide river flood plains, which are covered with rainwater and usually are swamped in summer. In these flood areas there are elevated sectors called restingas, which always remain above water, even in times of the greatest swellings. There are numerous lagoons known as cochas and tipishcas, surrounded by marshy areas with abundant grass vegetation.

Numerous rivers cross Loreto’s territory, all of which are part of the Amazonian Hydrographical System. Most of them are navigable. The main river crossing the region is the Amazon, one of the world’s most important rivers. Its numerous curves are always changing and sometimes make for a difficult journey. The width between banks of the Amazon sometimes measures a staggering 4 km. The Yavari River runs from Peru to Brazil, the Putumayo River serves as part of the border with Colombia, and the Ucayali and Marañón rivers penetrate Loreto after going through the Pongo de Manseriche.

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Climate

Loreto Climate

The weather is warm and humid with an average temperature of 17 °C (63 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F) during the months of June and July, and up to a high of 36 °C (97 °F) from December through March.

The average humidity level is 84%, with strong rain all year round.

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Political Divisions

The region is divided into seven provinces (provincias, singular: provincia), which are composed of 51 districts (distritos, singular: distrito). The provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are:

  • Alto Amazonas (Yurimaguas)
  • Datem del Marañón (San Lorenzo)
  • Loreto (Nauta)
  • Mariscal Ramón Castilla (Caballococha)
  • Maynas (Iquitos)
  • Requena (Requena)
  • Ucayali (Contamana)

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History

Peruvian River Basin

The first settlers in the region expanded through the various eastern slopes of the Andes. Many of these ethnic groups settled in the Purús, Turúa and Yaraví river basins, receiving names different from those of their lineage.

It is hard to determine the number of indigenous peoples in the region when the first European explorers and missionaries arrived. Numbers given by chroniclers indicate that within the first century of contact, 100,000 natives were baptized. Presumably, when the Spanish arrived, the total population was almost 300,000. Later on, however, the natives were afflicted with diseases due to contact with the Spaniards. Examples of these diseases are smallpox, diphtheria, malaria, yellow fever, and whooping cough.

On February 12, 1542, and after a search of several months, Spanish conqueror Francisco de Orellana discovered the Amazon river, an adventure that began in the Sierra.

Even though colonization had started several decades before, the city of Iquitos was founded in the 1750s. It is located between the Nanay River and the left bank of the Amazon river, which makes it an ideal starting point when traveling to surrounding regions.

During Colonial times, the Jesuits and Franciscans evangelized and founded different towns. During these years, they contributed by opening travel routes and cutting down distances between indigenous groups and colonial villages.

When the missions fell, a long period of relative national neglect followed, encompassing most of the 19th century. Nonetheless, this was the time when the foundations of the future political organization were laid. Also, this was the beginning of navigation via steamboats, the rubber heyday, and foreign immigration.

The Golden Age of Iquitos started at the end of the 19th century with the rubber boom. Since the region was very rich in rubber and it became so expensive, it turned into the center of attention and ambitions in the world. This period lasted 25 years and left behind gigantic development once the rubber boom had passed.

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Festivities

Fiesta de San Juan

  • First week of January. Anniversary of Iquitos. Week-long festivities to celebrate the founding of the city.
  • Third week of February. Carnivals.
  • June 24. Fiesta de San Juan. The local people go to the Nanay and Amazonas river banks, taking with them the traditional juanes, cooked on the eve. In front of the waters, they merrily drink and dance.
  • First two weeks of August. A farm, livestock and crafts fair takes place in the small town of Santa Clara de Nanay, located 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from the city of Iquitos.
  • September 7. Señora de la Natividad. Date in which the Tamshiyacu people, in the province of Maynas, honor their patron.
  • December 8. Fiesta de la Purísima, celebrated in the district of Punchana, located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from Iquitos.

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Typical Dishes and Beverages

Loretan Fish Dish

The typical dishes in Loreto are very similar to those of other places in the Amazon region. It is not unusual to discover that they consider motelo or turtle meat soup, or juanes (rice tamales with chicken or fish) as typical Loretan dishes. However, what is strange to see is that vendors in the local markets offer fried or steamed monkey or lizard meat that is delicious, according to the local people.

Other typical dishes include, cecina (dried and smoked pork), tacacho (coal cooked bananas, pork, and chopped onions), chonta salad, palometa (fish soup), carachama (fish) and paiche (a large fish). Among desserts there is a refreshing aguaje ice cream.

To drink, they serve masato (a beer made of cassava) or natural fruit juices such as aguaje, maracuyá (passion fruit), and cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum).

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Places of Interest
  • Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve
  • Pucacuro Reserved Zone
  • Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve

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General Information On Cajamarca, Peru


Cajamarca

History | Political Division

Cajamarca is a state Region in Peru. The capital is the city of Cajamarca. It is located in the north part of the country and shares a border with Ecuador. It is located at heights reaching 8900 feet above sea level in the Andes Mountain Range, the longest mountain range in the world. Part of its territory includes the Amazon Rainforest, in total the largest in the world.

History

The Wari’ people conquered earlier cultures in the highlands. They established the administrative center of Wiraquchapampa.

In the 15th century, the Incas conquered the territory, expanding their empire. They established their regional capital in what is now Cajamarca. The Incas in 1465 established a new province there to serve as a bridge to their later conquests.

Cajamarca had long been one of the oldest cities in South America when the Spanish arrived in their conquest of Peru.

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Political Division

City of Cajamarca

The Region is divided in thirteen provinces.

Province (Capital)

  1. Cajabamba (Cajabamba)
  2. Cajamarca (Cajamarca)
  3. Celendín (Celendín)
  4. Chota (Chota)
  5. Contumazá (Contumazá)
  6. Cutervo (Cutervo)
  7. Hualgayoc (Bambamarca)
  8. Jaén (Jaén)
  9. San Ignacio (San Ignacio)
  10. San Marcos (San Marcos)
  11. San Miguel (San Miguel de Pallaques)
  12. San Pablo (San Pablo)
  13. Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz de Succhubamba)

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Tumbes


Tumbes

Geography | Political Division | Attractions

Tumbes is a coastal region in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador. Due to the region’s location near the Equator it has a warm climate, with beaches that are considered among the finest in Peru. Despite its small area, the region contains a wide variety of ecosystems.

The name “Tumbes” originates from either Tumpis, a group of native peoples from the area, the word tumbos, a species of Passiflora that used to abound in the area, or the name of the Tumba cacique, whose son founded and populated the area.

Geography

Tumbes Region

The Tumbes Region is bordered by the Ecuadorian provinces of El Oro and Loja on the east; Peru’s Piura Region on the south; and by the Pacific Ocean on the north and west.

Morphologically, four zones can be defined in the region: the delta of the Tumbes and Zarumilla rivers; an alluvial plain north of the Tumbes River, with dry, low-depth ravines; ancient terraces that have been strongly eroded in the Máncora area; and the Amotape mountain range in the east and south, ending at El Barco Mountain. The delta of the Tumbes river is shallow, and when the tide is low, little sandy keys show up, which get covered by mangrove vegetation. Despite its small area— it is the second-smallest region in Peru— Tumbes has a great variety of ecosystems: mangroves, dry forests, the only coastal tropical forests in Peru, and a rich and warm sea. Around 50% of the region’s territory is covered by three protected natural areas: the Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary (which is part of the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves), the Cerros de Amotape National Park and the Tumbes Reserved Zone.

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Political Division

The region is divided into three provinces, which are composed of twelve districts.

The provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are:

  • Contralmirante Villar (Zorritos)
  • Tumbes (Tumbes)
  • Zarumilla (Zarumilla)

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Attractions

Touristic sites

Tourist Site in Tumbes

The fact that Tumbes lies so close to the Equator has determined its landscape, which teems in plant life. The beaches of Tumbes and its warm sea are ideal for surfing and scuba diving. Its pure white sands, sun and warm weather all year long, and a sea ideal for water sports, make the beach of Punta Sal one of the finest on the Peruvian coast. North of the city of Tumbes lies Puerto Pizarro, the gateway to the National Mangroves Sanctuary. The mangroves have formed vast clumps of saltwater-tolerant coastal forests which have created a unique ecosystem linking the river and the sea. The mangroves are the breeding grounds for black scallops, which are served up in Tumbes’ most famous dish, the black scallop ceviche.

South of Tumbes lies Zorritos, the town which received its name from workers involved in drilling the first oilwell in the area, back in 1863. Not far from Zorritos lies the Bocapán beach, where visitors can swim in Hervideros, natural hot springs bubbling with iodized salts.

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Typical dishes and beverages

Tumbesino cuisine

The typical dishes of the Tumbesino cuisine are based on seafood— ceviche of black scallops, crab, or shrimps, or cebiche mixto— and Tumbiresas covered by yucca and banana balls broth with dominicos, meat, red peppers, eggs, olives, raisins, flour, coriander and other herbs.

Other specialties include the shrimp omelette, chupe de cangrejos, and crabmeat omelette.

A typical beverage in the region is the chinguirito, which is obtained by combining pipa (the milk of a soft coconut) with the famous grape brandy called pisco.

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Piura


Piura

Geography | Climate | Natural Resources and Wildlife | Culture and customs of Piura | Political Division

Piura is a coastal region in northwestern Peru. The region’s capital is Piura and its largest port cities, Paita and Talara, are also among the most important in Peru. The area is known for its warm tropical and dry or semi-tropical beaches.

The country’s latest decentralization program is in hiatus after the proposal to merge departments was defeated in the national referendum in October 2005. The referendum held on October 30, 2005, as part of the ongoing decentralization process in Peru, to decide whether the region would merge with the current regions of Lambayeque and Tumbes to create a new Región Norte was defeated.

Geography

The Piura Region

The Piura Region is bordered to the north by the Tumbes Region and Ecuador, to the east by Cajamarca Region, to the south by the Lambayeque Region, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. “Punta Pariñas” in Piura is South America’s most western point.

The territory of the Piura Region has many climate variations due to its geographical location. It is just 4 degrees south of the equator, yet receives two ocean currents at the same time: the cold Humboldt Current (13-20 °C 55-68 F) and the warm El Niño Current (20-27 °C, 68-80 F). This makes the Piura Region a land that is both tropical and arid at the same time, The Land where the Tropics meets The Desert.

The coast is divided by the Peruvian subtropical desert of Sechura on the south and savanna-like scrub tropical dry forests to the center and north of the region. There are also small valleys of tropical climate, where rice and coconut fields are common, especially around the Piura and Sullana rivers.

There is a high Amazon climate (selva alta) as one goes away from the coast onto the sierra; Páramo climates and cooler temperatures appear as one climbs the sierra.

Topography is smooth in the coast and rough in the Sierra. There are many arid plains in the southern region. The Sechura Desert, located south of the Piura River, is Peru’s largest desert and one of the world’s few examples of a tropical desert; it borders a tropical terrain to the north. The Bayóvar depression, which is the lowest point in the country, is located in this desert.

The morphological forms most common in the coast are the dry ravine that suddenly become copious when there are heavy rains, forming tropical dry forests all over. Other features are half-moon shaped dunes, the marine terraces such as those of Máncora, Talara and Lobitos. Valleys have been formed by fluvial terraces of the Chira River and Piura River.

To the east, valleys are more or less deep and have been eroded by rivers forming equatorial tropical-dry-forests. The major peak surpasses 3000 m. The Paso de Porculla, in the southwest of the territory is only 2,138 meters high and is the lowest pass of the Peruvian Andes.

The rivers crossing its territory belong both to the Pacific watershed and to the Amazon Basin. The Chira River is the most important and flows into the Pacific Ocean. The Piura River also flows into the Pacific Ocean although the flow varies greatly with the changing seasons and during severe droughts will dry up.

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Climate

Sunset in Piura

The climate is semi tropical and tropical savanna in the center and north coast, Semi-arid in the southern coast near Lambayeque Region. Piura has a tropical dry or tropical savanna climate monsoon weather that averages 26 °C (79 F)throughout the whole year. Pleasant warm winters (May to October) that average between 25°C and 28°C (77 F and 82 F) during the daytime and lows around 16 °C (61 F)during the night.

Piura is covered by deserts, tropical valleys, dry equatorial forests, high Amazon climates as you reach between 1000–1500 meters, and a humid subtropical sierra climate if you reach over 2,000 meters. The Páramo climate is found in the higher regions of the Sierra.

Rain is scarce from May to November: it rains only from December to April at discontinuous rates due to the influence of the El Niño Current, but every so often, when the El Niño phenomenon arrives, rain is copious and makes the dry ravines become alive, giving rise not only to the impressive forests but to many floods and great landslides. El Niño occurs when ocean waters reach 27 °C (80 F). When ocean water temperatures elevate 1 or 1.5 degrees Celsius higher than 26 °C (79 F), the consequence could be catastrophic rains.

Although ocean waters can drop to 19 °C (66 °F) during the dry winter months (May to October), they can also rise to 27 °C (80 F) during the humid summer months (December to April); this calls for pleasant rains; yet if the temperatures rise 1 or 1.5 °C degrees above that, El Niño is assured.

During summer (December to April) temperatures can reach over the 40 °C (104 F) inland. During night time, high 20s or even 30s may seem unpleasant, which urge people to go to beach resorts such as Máncora or Colán.

The rest of the months have pleasant summer temperatures in the low 30s and mid 20s °C (77-90 F).

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Natural Resources and Wildlife

Algarrobo Trees in Piura

Piura is a land of unique algarrobo trees, a variety of mesquite similar to the carob, and it is the region with the most equatorial tropical dry forests in the whole Pacific.

These ecoregions carry a unique variety of orchids, birds, reptiles, plants and mammals. Piura is known for the best and oldest lime-lemons in South America as well as South America’s finest mango (tropical dry). With Lambayeque, it is the original home of Pima cotton. Piura also produces bananas, coconuts, rice and other fruits as local income.

The “Manglares de Vice” in the Sechura Province of Piura is the southernmost region of the Pacific to hold mangroves.

Its development has been favoured also by the petroleum found in the ocean of Talara Province, fishing is blessed by two ocean currents, silver mines are common and the current Bayovar Deposits are present as well.

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Culture and customs of Piura

Local Piuranos

Piura is host to a stunning mestizo culture, since all races mix here. Local Piuranos have a different accent from their neighbours at both sides since: they tend elongate their syllables in a similar ways to northern Mexicans. Piuranos have their own proud slang. Locals for example, call themselves Churres (popular term used for a young Piuran or northern person).

Piuranos are characterized by their witty minds, melancolic Tondero music and welcoming personalities. Like all Peruvians, they are heavy drinkers of chicha de jora, pisco or beer and all of them have a tendency towards creativity and art as their source of income.

Gastronomical dishes like the Piuran Secho de Chavelo (the capital’s dish), Algarrobina cocktails, many types of ceviches and other seafoods like Majarisco and Pasao al Agua. Piura is famed for its natilla sweets as well.

The warm climate of this region forbids hard labour from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., so it is common tradition to take siestas and better to wake up early to get important stuff done before noon.

Processions and religious folk is passionately practiced by locals. One of them is Cristo de Ayabaca.

Popular crafts are the Chulucana Pottery and handy hats and silversmith arts made from the Catacaos Province.

Northern cowboys can still be seen today wandering the deserts of Sechura, Catacaos and the forests of Morropon transporting their goods using donkeys and mules. They seem to resemble physically the “American Southwest” cowboys, or Argentinan gauchos and Mexican charros. They are noted not only for their abilities to sing and play Cumanana and Tondero but as silversmiths that work the beautiful filigree earrings, leathers, hats, wooden and silver utensils of Catacaos region.

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Political Division

The region is divided into 8 provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular: provincia), which are composed of 64 districts (distritos, singular: distrito). The provinces, with their capitals in parentheses, are:

  1. Ayabaca (Ayabaca)
  2. Huancabamba (Huancabamba)
  3. Morropón (Chulucanas)
  4. Paita (Paita)
  5. Piura (Piura)
  6. Sechura (Sechura)
  7. Sullana (Sullana)
  8. Talara (Talara)

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Lambayeque


Lambayeque

Geography | Political Division | Places of Interest

Lambayeque is a coastal region in northwestern Peru known for its rich Moche and Chimú historical past and related archeological sites and museums. The region’s name originates from the ancient pre-Inca civilization of the Lambayeque, also called Sican culture.

Geography

The territory of the Lambayeque Region is made up of wide plains irrigated by rivers from the Andes; in most of the arid area, irrigation is needed to support any farming. The fertile river valleys produce half of the sugar cane crop of Peru. In addition, Lambayeque and the Piura Region provide most of the rice crops consumed in Peru.

Increased agricultural harvest is expected with completion of the Olmos Transandino Project. The water supply project will transfer up to 2 billion annually of water from the Huancabamba River in the Cajamarca Region east of Lambayeque.

In the smaller scale farming of earlier centuries, the Olmos Carob Tree Forest supported goat herds that fed on carobs. The fine goatskins were tanned to create the fine, pale, leather known as “cordoban” or “cordovan”, from the Spanish town of Córdoba, where the process was developed. Goat fat was used to make soap.

There are two small islands off the Pacific coast of the Lambayeque Region: Lobos de Afuera, and Lobos de Tierra; there was a dispute with the Piura Region over control of the latter island.

The region is bordered by the Piura Region on the north, the Cajamarca Region on the southeast, the La Libertad Region on the south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

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Political Division

Chiclayo Region in Lambayeque

The region is divided into three provinces (provincias), which are composed of 38 districts (distritos). The provinces, with their capitals in parentheses, are:

  • Chiclayo (Chiclayo)
  • Ferreñafe (Ferreñafe)
  • Lambayeque (Lambayeque)

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Places of Interest

Tumbas Reales de Sipán Museum

  • Pómac Forest Historical Sanctuary
  • Túcume Pyramids
  • Bruning Museum
  • Tumbas Reales de Sipán Museum

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La Libertad


La Libertad

Geography | Archaeology | Archeological Sites | Festivals and Events

La Libertad is a region in northwestern Peru. Formerly it was known as the Department of La Libertad (Departamento de La Libertad), a political division that generally corresponds to a state in the United States of America. It is bordered by the Lambayeque, Cajamarca and Amazonas regions on the north, the San Martín Region on the east, the Ancash and Huánuco regions on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Its capital is Trujillo, which is the nation’s third biggest city. The region’s main port is Salaverry, one of Peru’s largest ports. The name of the region is Spanish for “freedom” or “liberty”; it was named in honor of the Intendencia of Trujillo’s proclaiming independence from Spain in 1820 and fighting for that.

Geography

La Libertad is the only Peruvian region that includes all three natural regions of the nation: coast, Sierra (highlands), and selva (rainforest).

Trujillo, the capital, has a strategic location, near where the Andes come closest to the coast. Seen from Trujillo, the Andes appears as a row of low-elevation hills. The Andean Plateau increases altitude sharply to the east, in the provinces of Otuzco and Santiago de Chuco. These two provinces comprise the Pacific hydrographic watershed, which give rise to the Moche and Virú rivers, to the south, and Chicama River to the north. Pacasmayo Province, located more to the north, is along the coast. To the east, Sánchez Carrión Province waterways drain into the Amazon River and thus belong to the Atlantic Ocean watershed.

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Archaeology

Archaeological Remains of Chan Chan

The coastal strip set the stage for the rise of many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the pre-Ceramic Huaca Prieta civilization, which is more than 5,000 years old & the Cupisnique, which is more than 3,000 years old. From 200 A.C., the first one to expand beyond its cradle was the Moche or Mochica culture. It was basically an agriculture and/or a warrior culture, which built countless temples and palaces such as the Sol (Sun), Luna (Moon), El Brujo & Cao Viejo, and other huacas. The Chimú culture emerged later and built its capital in Chan Chan, the largest pre-Columbian city in South America, & huacas like Esmeralda & Arco Iris (Rainbow). At its zenith, Chan Chan was home to 60,000 inhabitants who stubbornly resisted the expansion of the Inca Empire. These ancient cultures used irrigation canals and water reservoirs, which systems were increasingly better engineered and extensive over the years. The technological acumen of these sophisticated agricultural systems was carried into the Inca Empire, which surrounded the remnants of the prior cultures. The Spanish colonizers destroyed most of the agricultural works to more effectively establish political control and provide de facto slave labor from the displaced native agriculturalists.

The archaeological remains of Chan Chan, 6 km (3.7 mi) northeast of downtown Trujillo, are rather well-preserved despite being built out of adobe (mud bricks), largely because 1) dearth of rainfall and consequent erosion, and 2) lack of significant re-use of its construction materials (adobes do not respond easily to removal and transport and are relatively cheap to make on-site in current methods of construction).

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Archeological Sites

Some of the archeological sites in La Libertad Region are:

  • Chan Chan
  • El Brujo
  • Huaca del Sol
  • Huaca de la Luna
  • Marcahuamachuco
  • Pakatnamu
  • Pirqa Pirqa
  • San José de Moro
  • Huaca Santa Clara
  • Wiraquchapampa
  • Archeological Complex Caballo Muerto

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Festivals and Events

Festival in La Libertad

  • Spring Festival
  • Marinera Festival
  • International Calzaferia El Porvenir it is a fair of footwear and in 2012 took place the 10th edition; it is held in El Porvenir city.
  • Regional Fair of the Pineapple it is held in the town of Poroto.
  • Virgin of La Puerta Patronal Feast, the celebration originated in 1664 when it placed the image of the Virgin at the entrance of Otuzco as precaution of the risk of a pirate raid. The main day is celebrated on December 15 every year and in 2012 the feast of Our Lady of the Gate was declared a National Cultural Heritage by the Peruvian government.
  • Contradanza, expression cultivated in Huamachuco city, in the villages Urpay, Shiracmaca and Culicanda. This dance in 2012 has been declared a National Cultural Heritage by the Peruvian government.

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San Martin


San Martin

Geography | Political Division | Archaeology

San Martín is a region in northern Peru. Most of the region is located in the upper part of the Peruvian Amazon rainforest. Its capital is Moyobamba and the largest city in the region is Tarapoto.

Geography

Boundaries

  • North and East: Loreto Region
  • South: Huánuco Region
  • West: La Libertad and Amazonas regions

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Morphology

Parrots of San Martin

The territory of San Martín can be divided into four morphological zones:

  • the west, near the eastern side of the Andean Plateau, with a rough topography and many ravines;
  • the zone of the wide valleys, with stepped terraces formed by the Huallaga River and its affluents, where population is engaged mainly in cattle and agriculture;
  • the southwest zone, with a relief coming down from the Cordillera Azul, with low elevation, where is an impressive canyon known as Cajón de Sión, which finishes in the Cayumba rapids;
  • a small lower jungle zone with areas easily flooded and with almost no accidents.

The Huallaga River is one of the most important rivers in the region. It forms, together with its tributaries a hydrographical system which drains all of the region’s territory. The Pongo de Aguirre is an important canyon formed by the Huallaga going through the Andean hills.

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Political Division

The region is divided into 10 provinces, which are composed of 77 districts.

The provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are:

  • Bellavista (Bellavista)
  • El Dorado (San José de Sisa)
  • Huallaga (Saposoa)
  • Lamas (Lamas)
  • Mariscal Cáceres (Juanjuí)
  • Moyobamba (Moyobamba)
  • Picota (Picota)
  • Rioja (Rioja)
  • San Martín (Tarapoto)
  • Tocache (Tocache)

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Archaeology

Gran Pajáten in San Martin

Gran Pajáten is a pre Inca complex of circular slate buildings decorated with figures of flying condors situated on the border with La Libertad. Due to its difficult access, tourism is not yet possible at the site.

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ICA


Ica

Language | Locations | Museums

Language

Ica language, a Magdalenic Chibchan language related to Ijca spoken in Colombia, South America.

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Locations

Ica Region

  • Ica, Peru, the capital of the Ica Region
  • The Içá River, also known as the Putumayo River
  • The Ica Province of Peru
  • The Ica Region of Peru

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Museums
  • Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
  • Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston
  • Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia

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